Since 1848, the Swiss Federal is a relatively independent federal state of the country, some of them dating back to confederation 700 years, it may put them in the world's oldest republic. Currently, in 1291, this article summarizes the events in modern Switzerland. 1291, it mainly focuses on the fate of the old Swiss Confederation, initially composed of only three states (Uri, Schwyz, and Nidwalden), in what is now central Switzerland, it gradually expanded to cover the current area in 1815 Switzerland.
The beginning of Switzerland
After the Battle of Bibracte Divico and Kaisadadi
Archaeological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers have been settled in the plains north of the Alps the late Paleolithic period. In the Neolithic period, the region's population is relatively dense. Bronze Age remains of the house as early as 3,800 BC cells were found in shallow waters of the lake. Around 1500 BC, Celtic tribes settled in the area. The Raetians live in the east, the western region occupied prophet.
In 58 BC the Helvetians attempt to evade migratory pressure from Germanic tribes to move to Gaul, but was defeated Lauren Kaisadadi army, and then return. Alpine areas were included in the Roman Empire and Rome, primarily in the following century. The center of the Roman Administration Aventicum (Avenches's). In the 259 in, Alamanni tribes out of the lime to the Swiss border settlements on the territory of the Roman Empire.
Early Christian bishop, founded in the 4th century AD. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Germanic tribes to the area. Burgundians settled in the West, while in the north, and slowly forced the Alamanni Celtic and Roman settlement before the retirement of the population, in the mountains. Frankish kingdom of Burgundy became a part of, in 534, two years later, the Grand Duchy of Alemanni prosecution. Control of El Alamein in the region, the only Christian communities continue to exist and the Irish monks re-introduced Christianity in the early 7th century.
In the Carolingian king, Fengjianzhiduo is increasing, monasteries and bishops is an important base for the maintenance of the rule. Approved the Treaty of Verdun greater Burgundy 843 (part of the West, and now Switzerland) in Lorraine, and Alemannia (Eastern) Eastern kingdom of Louis the German, who is part of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the 10th century, as the rules of the Carolingians torn down Saracens Valais, and in the Mazar and the destruction of 917 巴塞尔圣加伦 at 926. Only after the victory of King Otto I in 955 in the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld, Swiss territory back into the empire.
In the 12th century, has command of the Duke of Zähringen part of the territory of Burgundy, including the western part of modern Switzerland. They set up a number of cities, including Freiburg Bern in 1157 and 1191. Zähringer dynasty ended with the death of Berchtold V in 1218, their city and later became reichsfrei (actually a city-state within the Holy Roman Empire), and the Duke of Kyburg and competition in rural areas, strict control of the former Habsburg territories Zähringer.
According to rules of the Hohenstaufen, and the Gotthard mountain pass Rhaetia acquired importance. The latter in particular is to become a major direct route through the mountains. Open (in 1231) and Schwyz (1240) was awarded the grant Reichsfreiheit direct control of the empire in the neck. Most of the territory belonging to the monastery was Tewaerdeng, before becoming reichsfrei.
Kyburg dynasty extinction paved the way for most of the territory of the Habsburg dynasty in the south of the Rhine under their control, prompting them to generate power. Habsburg Rudolf I, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, effectively revoked the state of Reichsfreiheit give "State Forests" Uri, Schwyz, and Nidwalden. Therefore, the state lost its independent status of the forest, by the governor.
Old Confederacy (1291-1523)
Growth in the old Swiss Confederation
The Battle of Laupen (1339) and military forces between the Duke of Savoy Ruishi Sa (迪博尔德席林 Elder, 1480).
In 1291, states Uri, Schwyz, Nidwalden and betrayal Habsburgs. Their union, the core of the old Swiss Confederation, is embodied in the federal charter, a document probably written after the fact, in the early 14th century. In combat Morgarten and Sempach 13,151,386, Switzerland Habsburg army defeated, the Federation continued in the Holy Roman Empire.
1353, the original three states have joined the state Gelalusi and Zug and the city of Lucerne, Zurich, Berne, forming the "Old Federation" of eight countries have continued throughout the 15th century. Zürich was expelled from the Union in the 1440s conflicts in its territory Toggenburg (the old Zurich War). This led to a significant increase in federal power and wealth, especially since the defeat of Burgundy Charles the bold and successful in the 1470s the Swiss mercenaries.
States listed in order of the traditional Swiss reflects this state, a list of eight "before the town," First of all, with the United States before the founding of the city, state, followed after the state joined the Union in 1481, in chronological order.
Swiss victory in the war against the Swabian League in 1499 to achieve de facto independence of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1506, the Pope's Swiss Guard Youliwusi II can employ to continue to serve the pope today. Expansion of the federal and reputation gained during previous wars invincible the first to suffer setbacks and failures in 1515 the Swiss in the battle Marignan.
Zwingli was elected priest of the Church at large Wuerlixi Minister in 1518 in Zurich. Zwingli's reforms, 1523 was the referee and the people of Zurich and lead to major changes in private life and public affairs Zurich. Reform is spreading, five other states from Zurich, Switzerland, and five others seriously at the Roman Catholic faith, leading to inter-state wars (Kappeler Kriege) in 1529 and 1531, Zwingli died in the battlefield.
In the Thirty Years War, Switzerland was a relative "oasis of peace and prosperity" (Grimmelshausen) in war-torn Europe, mainly because all major countries in Europe is the Swiss mercenaries, and only gave up in the hands of a rival Swiss . Politically, they are trying to influence, through the commander of mercenaries, such as Joerg Jenatsch or Yuehan Lu Road 夫韦特斯坦. Bund Drei Grisons, when not a federal member, participated in the 1620 war led to the loss of their years of Valtellina in 1623.
The old system (1648-1798)
The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, Switzerland became an independent corporate Holy Roman Empire. Valtellina become again a dependent Bünde Drei remained so after treatment, until the Founding of the Cisalpine Republic by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797.
In 1653, farmers in areas subject to Lucerne, Bern, Thun 巴塞尔索罗 and resistance, because the currency devaluation. Although the authorities prevailed in this Swiss peasant war, some of them through tax reform and the long-term development of events will appear as the other courts to prevent the tyranny of Europe. Sectarian violence remains, however, fighting erupted again in 1656 and 1712 Villmergen.
Napoleonic era (1798-1848)
Switzerland in the Napoleonic era
In the war of the French Revolution, the revolutionary army cook east, surrounded by the war in Switzerland and Austria. In 1798 the Swiss defeated the French and the United States fully into Helvetic Republic, the abolition of the states. After being collected, by a foreign power, relying on French troops to survive is very unpopular Helvetic Republic, has been facing serious economic problems and political unrest.
In 1803, Napoleon restored the legal mediation part of the sovereignty of states and the territory of the former tributary of the Aargau, Thurgau, Graubünden, St. Gallen, Vaud and Ticino became equal rights.
1815 Congress of Vienna fully re-establish independent Swiss and European powers agreed to permanently recognize the neutrality of Switzerland (recovery). At the time, Valais, Geneva, Switzerland Nashataier and adds some new towns, to expand the territory of Switzerland is the last time.
Switzerland as a federal state (1848-1914)
In 1882 Gotthard
In 1847, civil war broke out between Catholics and Protestants in the state (Sonderbund). It is the direct cause 'special treaty' (Sonderbund) of the Catholic cantons. It lasted less than a month, resulting in less than 100 victims. Apart from small riots, this is the last Wuzhuangchongtu of Switzerland.
As the result of the civil war by the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848, amended in 1874 a wide range of responsibilities, a federal defense, trade and legal issues, so that all the other problems the state government. Therefore, not much improvement, in the 20th century, political support, economic and social development of the characteristics of Swiss history.
World War II (1914-1945)
Switzerland in the two world wars
Major powers to respect the neutrality of Switzerland during World War I, although this is Green, Hoffman came close to the problem.
League of Nations in Geneva (1926)
During World War II, detailed invasion plans drawn up by Germany, but Switzerland was never attacked. Switzerland has been able to remain independent through a combination of military deterrence, economic concessions, Germany, and good luck in the major events during the war delayed the invasion. Attempt by the Swiss Nazi party of small business, mergers and Germany fail miserably, mainly due to Switzerland's multicultural heritage, national identity and strong sense of responsibility and a long tradition of direct democracy and freedom of civilians. Swiss press vigorously criticized the Third Reich, often infuriating leadership. On the General Henry Guisan, a large-scale mobilization of militia forces was ordered. Switzerland's military strategy is a static defense from the economic center in the border protection, the strategy of long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong organization, the location of adequate reserves in the Alps is called reduced. Switzerland is an important base for espionage, the two sides in the conflict, often mediate the communication between the Axis and Allied.
Switzerland's trade embargo of the Allies and the Axis. Both sides put pressure on Switzerland not open to trade with others. Economic cooperation and expand the credit, depending on the perception of the Third Reich, the possibility of invasion, and the availability of other trading partners. Concessions reached its peak after a key railway line was cut off Vichy France in 1942, leaving Switzerland completely surrounded by the Axis powers. Half of Switzerland depends on the trade of food and almost all of the fuel, but the control of an important rail tunnel across the Alps in Germany and Italy. Exported to Switzerland, in the event of war, precision machine tools, watches, jewelry bearing (for viewfinder), electricity, and dairy products. During World War II, the Swiss franc is the only remaining major freely convertible currency in the world, the Allies and Germany, selling large quantities of gold, the Swiss National Bank. From 1940 to 1945, the German Reichsbank sold 1.3 billion francs for the Swiss bank's gold franc Swiss franc and other currencies this golden money looted hundreds of millions of gold, Bank station in the occupied country.五十 八点 一 ○ thousand francs "Melmer" gold taken from Holocaust victims in Eastern Europe was sold to a Swiss bank. In total, trade between Germany and Switzerland accounted for about 0.5% to 'the German war effort, but did not significantly prolong the war.
During the war, 30 million refugees in Switzerland internship. 104,000 people, including foreign military custody rights and obligations of neutral overview of the Hague Convention. Others are either detained civilians and foreigners, or a residence permit or tolerate the state authorities. These refugees can not get work. 60,000 of these refugees are civilians fleeing Nazi persecution. Among them, 26,000 to 27,000 Jews. 10,000 and 25,000 civilian refugees were turned away. The beginning of the war, Switzerland has a Jewish population of between 18,000 and 28,000, with a total population of about 400 million U.S. dollars.
In Switzerland, where the conflict is a modest bias. Some pacifists. Some people positions, according to the International Zibenzhuyi and international communism. Others leaned more in their own language group, in some areas is more pro-French alliance, a number of areas in Switzerland and Germany, the Axis better. Government attempts to obstruct the activities of individuals, political parties or factions as extremism in Switzerland or who attempt to undermine the unity of the country. Further from the Swiss German-language standard (high) to speak German in Germany, more emphasis on the local dialect in Switzerland.
In 90 years, class action disputes in Bulukelin, New York assets of the bank accounts of Jews during the Holocaust Commission of the Swiss Government to encourage the latest and most authoritative interaction between the Swiss and the Nazi regime. The final report of the independent team of international scientists, known as the Bergier Commission, published in 2002.
Modern history of Switzerland and Swiss politics
After the war, the Swiss authorities that the construction of a nuclear bomb Switzerland. Nuclear physicist at the Federal Institute of Technology mainly as made Paul Luo Xiele real possibility, and in 1958, the population voted in favor of a clear bomb. 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is considered a valid alternative, however, the bomb was never built.
Since 1959, the Federal Parliament, elected by the parliament, members of the four main political parties, the Liberal Democrats Protestant, Catholic Christian Democrats, Social Democratic Left Party and the people's rights, in essence, is to create a system without significant opposition Members (see matching system), reflecting the strong opposition to direct democracy.
In 1963 Switzerland joined the Council of Europe. These women have the right to vote in 1971, and the Equal Rights Amendment was approved in 1981. In 1979, the state part of the Berne attained independence, to form a new Jura.
The role of Switzerland, the United Nations and many international organizations, help to alleviate the concerns of the State to remain neutral. In 2002, Switzerland formally approved for the United Nations members - the only countries to join the agreement, by the people to vote.
Switzerland is not EU members, but has (with Liechtenstein) surrounded by the territory, because Austria joined the EU in 1995. In 2005, Switzerland agreed to join the Schengen treaty and the Dublin Convention on the popular vote.